The Indiana Springs dashboard (linked below) contains chemical and biological analysis data from more than 100 perennial springs around the state, sampled periodically by IGWS scientists. Some springs records also contain historic data from reports published by employees of IGWS precursor organizations, state university researchers, and U.S. Geological Survey employees.

Perennial springs are characterized by having a year-round discharge of water, making them more important for various uses than ephemeral springs that only flow part of the year. Because springs appear at the point where a groundwater aquifer reaches the surface, a continuous volume of water discharged from perennial springs is indicative of larger groundwater aquifers below the surface, which can store sufficient water even during dry periods when the aquifer is receiving no recharge. This makes them a valuable water resource.

All data in this dashboard is filtered by the category selector at the top, labeled “Select a site.” Those options are also limited by the geographic extent of the map. For instance, if you zoom in to northern Indiana, none of the sites in southern Indiana will be visible in the category selector. The "Home" icon in the map frame will reframe the map to include all sites throughout the state.

Some sample sites have records of several years' worth of data. A "1 of [x]" selection might appear for that site, which allows you to explore different dates that a particular analyte was sampled.

A select list of analytes have been chosen for display here, but the complete data can be downloaded from the link below. For help in understanding what these data mean, read the text near the bottom of this webpage.

If you are interested in bringing a spring that you know about to our attention, the best way is to go to the "report a spring" link below and use your smartphone to locate the spring while you are standing next to it. You can also click here to report the spring from your desktop computer.

Spring water type

Springs can be classified into one of four types based on the chemistry of the water: alkaline, saline, chalybeate, and neutral/indifferent.

Alkaline: Principal mineral ingredients in the water are carbonates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Nearly all springs in the Indiana Springs database fall into this category except for the few specifically named below.

Saline: Water is dominated by sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, potassium, or sodium. These are also called "mineral springs." Pluto Spring (59001), New Sprudel Spring (59003), Trinity Spring B (51004), Trinity Spring A (51006), LaSalle Spring (51007) and Sulphur Spring (31008) fall into this category.

Chalybeate: Characterized by having salts of iron in solution, both carbonate and sulfate salts. Unnamed spring (28008) is the only known spring in our database in this category.

Neutral or indifferent: Water is close to alkaline, but contains less dissolved minerals.

Understanding the data

NOTE: The Indiana Geological and Water Survey has NO regulatory or enforcement roles; these analyses are provided for information only. If you plan to use this water as a drinking water source, we recommend you visit the Indiana State Department of Health webpage on well water quality; it also applies to spring water quality and testing.

  • Nitrate: A measure of the amount of nitrogen, in the form of nitrate, occuring in the water sample. Nitrate and phosphate values are important indicators of nutrient contamination from human activity, such as agriculture. Primary drinking water standard (DWS)* is less than 44.3 mg/L. Other compounds of nitrogen also can occur in water, such as nitrite and ammonia.
  • Strontium: This is an indicator for the various water-mineral interactions geologists study. Strontium is not uniformly distributed among carbonate stratigraphic units, so elevated strontium may become useful in hydrostratigraphy studies. There is no primary or secondary DWS for this component.
  • Silicon: This is an indicator for the various water-mineral interactions geologists study. Silicon shows primarily non-carbonate mineral interaction with water, most notably quartz, clay minerals, and amorphous silica. There is no primary or secondary DWS for this component.
  • Manganese: Manganese usually forms a black coating on rock surfaces or on tanks, fixtures, etc., that come in contact with the water. Secondary drinking water standard (DWS)* is less than 0.05 mg/L.
  • Lithium: Lithium is a controlled substance. It is a very unique parameter, most notably found in mineral waters naturally, so lithium presence in springs not classified as mineralized may indicate either a mixing of water types or an association of a particular stratigraphic unit with lithium. This data could be useful to geologists in hydrostratigraphy mapping. There is no primary or secondary DWS for this component; however, the EPA considers it an unregulated contaminant to be monitored.
  • Anions and cations: When minerals dissolve in water, they form ions that have a tiny positive or negative electrical charge. Anions are negatively charged ions in solution; cations are the positively charged ions. The sum of anions and cations should measure close to 0 or further investigation is warranted.
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli): E. coli is the major species in the fecal coliform group. Of the five general groups of bacteria that comprise the total coliforms, only E. coli is generally not found growing and reproducing in the environment. Consequently, E. coli is the species of coliform bacteria that is the best indicator of fecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogens. Primary DWS* is 0 MPN/100 ml. ("MPN" is most probable number of colonies.) NOTE: Successive samples taken at the same location could have been collected at differing distances from the source; if collected where the spring issues from the ground, counts tend to be less than in samples collected from further away. With questions, contact Tracy Branam at

* DWS is the drinking water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public drinking water supplies. These standards do not apply to private drinking water sources; they are listed here for reference. Primary DWS addresses components that can cause health problems when ingested in concentrations above certain limits. Secondary DWS addresses components that may impact taste, cause staining or corrosion of fixtures, or stain laundry. Not all components have EPA-set primary or secondary DWS. Drinking water standards apply to water that is being ingested, whether filtered or not. All IGWS springs data except the bacteria counts is for filtered water.