Alluviation of the Ohio River valley near Evansville, Indiana, and its effect on the distribution of sand and gravel in the area (1986)
The bedrock valley, developed during late Tertiary or early Quaternary time, consists of steep valley walls, two unpaired terrace levels, and a narrow, deep trough. These features were formed during stepwise erosion of the Lexington Plain (Highland Rim Plain). Four depositional units can be recognized in the valley fill. The basal alluvium consists of consolidated gravel, sand, and mud deposited during a pre-Wisconsinan, possibly Illinoian, ice advance and later retreat. These deposits were eroded before Woodfordian ice advanced and a nearly level valley floor was formed. During the Woodfordian Subage of Frye and Willman (1960), two ice advances into the Miami-Whitewater basin supplied sediment to the Ohio River. Braided streams deposited relatively coarse sediment during each of the two ice advances, but the streams differed in caliber of load and style of deposition. Braided-stream deposits of the two depositional episodes in the Evansville area are separated by an erosion surface formed during temporary retreat of the ice from the basin. After final retreat of the ice another period of erosion produced a locally scoured surface on which sediments of Holocene age were deposited. These are markedly finer grained than the underlying Pleistocene braided-stream deposits, and they accumulated in a meandering stream. The only potential sand and gravel deposits in the area are those found in the valley-train sediments of Wisconsinan age. Pre-Wisconsinan gravels are well graded but are too deeply buried to have economic potential. Holocene channel sediments are near the surface but are too fine grained to supply coarse grades of aggregate. Valley-train sediments under the upper and lower terraces are relatively coarse grained and are buried by only moderate amounts of overburden; valley-train deposits under the modern flood plain are coarser grained but deeply buried.
Fraser, G. S., Fishbaugh, D. A. 1986, Alluviation of the Ohio River valley near Evansville, Indiana, and its effect on the distribution of sand and gravel in the area: Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 36, 26 p., 19 fig.
You may also like:
Can't find what you're looking for? Feel free to contact us directly:
Publication Sales Office
Indiana Geological and Water Survey
611 North Walnut Grove
Bloomington, IN 47405-2208
IGS Return Policy
All sales are final. Materials may not be returned after they have been accepted by the customer. Any discrepencies in mail orders must be reported to IGWS within 10 days of receipt of order.
The Indiana Geological and Water Survey will refund the purchase price and sales tax of products if returned with the original sales receipt within 10 days of receipt of order. Refunds will be issued with the same method of payment as indicated on the original receipt except for cash purchases, which will be refunded by check. Items must be returned in the same condition as purchased. Refunds on digital products and services are not allowed, except for defective media such as CD-ROMs, flash drives, and so on. The customer is responsible for paying shipping costs to return items.