Solution features and karst are a collection of topographic and predominately shallow subsurface features formed in limestone, gypsum, dolomite, salt, and other water-soluble rocks by dissolution and subsidence. Areas of karst terrain are characterized by sinkholes, caves, underground drainage, enlarged fractures and joints-all features that can affect mining and construction operations. Karst features form where carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite) underlie the surface. Freely circulating slightly acidic rainwater and ground water slowly dissolve the limestone and create sinkholes, caves and other solution features. Surface and ground waters that can affect mining often flow directly into these solution features.
Shaffer, N. R., Sowder, K. , Weibel, C. P., Wolfe, M. E., Paylor, R. L. 2007, Map showing industrial minerals operations and carbonate regions affected by solution features in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio: Indiana Geological Survey Open-File Study 07-02
Notes: Scale: 1:1,000,000
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