INTRODUCTION: Sand and gravel are unconsolidated granular materials resulting from the natural disintegration of rocks. Unlike most other mineral commodities they are defined in terms of particle size rather than mineral or chemical composition. In general, sand is a detrital material consisting of rock and mineral fragments that are less than 2 millimeters and greater than one-sixteenth millimeter in diameter. Gravel is a coarse detrital material consisting of rounded or partly rounded fragments of rocks and minerals greater than 2 millimeters in diameter. The upper size range, although variable, is considered to be 3 ½ to 4 inches. Sand and gravel are used in large quantities as a base or sub-grade material for highways, as roadstone on unpaved roads and as fill material. Another important use is as aggregate or the framework component in concrete, mortar, or bituminous mixes. Each year vast quantities of sand and gravel are used in making highways, bridges, dams, runways, foundations, and buildings. During 1968 sand and gravel production in Indiana, exclusive of specialty sands, was 25,774,000 tons and was valued at $26,160,000.

Carr, D. D., Webb, W. M. 1970, Sand and Gravel Resources of Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 42D, 31 p., 20 fig.

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All sales are final. Materials may not be returned after they have been accepted by the customer. Any discrepencies in mail orders must be reported to IGWS within 10 days of receipt of order.

The Indiana Geological and Water Survey will refund the purchase price and sales tax of products if returned with the original sales receipt within 10 days of receipt of order. Refunds will be issued with the same method of payment as indicated on the original receipt except for cash purchases, which will be refunded by check. Items must be returned in the same condition as purchased. Refunds on digital products and services are not allowed, except for defective media such as CD-ROMs, flash drives, and so on. The customer is responsible for paying shipping costs to return items.