High-silica sand potentialities of the Ohio River Formation (1956)

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Authors: Author Pinsak

Bulletin 9 Abstract: Laboratory tests indicate that sand from the Ohio River formation, a deposit of probable Tertiary age, can be treated so as to meet the requirements of high-silica sand by means of simple and inexpensive beneficiation methods that will effectively remove most of the iron and alumina from the sand. Skewness curves and histograms indicate that the sand is well sorted and has an average median grain size of 0.26 millimeter. Petrographic studies show that only stable minerals are present in the sand. Although heavy minerals constitute and average of only 0.425 percent of the sand, the relative amount of heavy minerals is uniform in all sand samples. Composition of the sand suggests a granitic source, and texture of the heavy minerals indicates that the Ohio River formation was deposited during Pliocene time in a fluvial environment. Differences in color of the various units of the formation are due to secondary oxidation of the contained iron. X-ray diffraction analysis established the fact that iron is present in the formation principally as ferruginous clay. An acid or base leach proved to be the most effective treatment for removing this type of contamination.

All beneficiation methods which were tested increase the purity of the sand above minimum high-silica specifications. The best results were obtained, however, with a water-washed sand placed in an 18 N solution of sulfuric acid for a period of 40 minutes at a temperature of 140ΓΈ C. This leaching method produced a sand that meets specifications for the first quality glass sand.



Pinsak, A. P. 1956,  High-silica sand potentialities of the Ohio River Formation: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 09, 54 p., 7 fig.


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Keywords: industrial minerals, sand, Bethel Formation, West Baden Group, grain size, petrology

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