Item Number: B07
Map Scale: 1:126,720
Bulletin 7 Abstract: Upon retreat of the Pleistocene ice north of the Valparaiso and associated moraines, the damming of north-flowing drainage resulted in the formation of Lake Chicago. This lake passed through at least four phases of water levels before it became the present Lake Michigan. Beaches which were formed during several phases of Lake Chicago and Lake Michigan are sources of commercial sand. The commercial operations which remove sand from these deposits have been examined. Industrial sand deposits south of Lake Michigan are shown in bulletin. Sand samples were taken for laboratory determination of sieve sizes, density separation, and chemical analysis. Composition and roundness of sand grains, as well as details of bedding, weathering, porosity, bonding, and moisture content, were studied. The general requirements for each of the uses made of dune sand are summarized. Although it is used extensively for molding sand for some types of large castings, the greatest quantity has been used as fill sand, and smaller amounts have been utilized for asphalt paving sand, core sand, fire and furnace sand, engine sand, and glass sand. To produce economically the required sand for industry, cranes and railroad cars are necessary. Some foundry operators dry the sand in order to control moisture more effectively. To ensure a steady supply, sand dunes should be large enough and sidings long enought o accommodate several cars at one time. Space must be allowed for the free movement of a crane from car to car. As winder weather may curtail sand operations, the operators must plan their work ahead in order to meet schedules.

The removal of the sand does not leave the land waste. The operators can readily divide the land into residential subdivisions and thus gain additional revenue. Natural dunes are preserved in the Indiana Dunes State Park and in some residential areas. If the present supply and demand is maintained, 50 to 100 years of sand operations are possible.



Bieber, C. L., Smith, N. M. 1952, Industrial sands of the Indiana Dunes: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 07, 31 p., 6 pl.


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Keywords: industrial minerals, Indiana Dunes, sand, Lake Michigan, beach, grain size, density, chemistry, production

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