Type locality: The Louisville Limestone was named by Foerste (1897, p. 218, 232) for about 60 ft (18 m) of light-colored to medium brown fine-grained thick-bedded argillaceous limestone and dolomitic limestone exposed in and just east of Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky, where many good exposures remain, including in road cuts along the interstate highway system (Shaver, 1970; Droste and Shaver, 1986).
History of usage:
Droste and Shaver (1986) noted that from the time of its first introduction, the name “Louisville” was applied in many Indiana reports to rocks in the southeastern Indiana outcrop area that had been considered to be the top part of the Niagara Group, which was true, considering that the Devonian truncation of older rocks extends well down in the Silurian section in that area.
Becker (1974, p. 20) noted that in the subsurface of southern Indiana the Louisville Limestone is characteristically limestone and dolomitic limestone that is light olive to light gray (5 Y 6/1 to N 7), fine to medium grained, and in places shaly and cherty.
Droste and Shaver (1986) state that Louisville rocks in Indiana are underlain conformably nearly everywhere by the Waldron Shale (Waldron Formation, Waldron Member) and with a conspicuous transitional zone in some places that involves terrigenous clastic sediments well up into the otherwise rather pure carbonate rocks. In far western counties, however, the Louisville lies directly, but conformably, on Salamonie rocks because so few of the Waldron type of sediments are present in that area that Waldron recognition becomes impractical (Droste and Shaver, 1986).
As already noted, the Louisville Limestone correlates with upper Pleasant Mills rocks of northern Indiana (named in part as the Louisville Member) and with upper St. Clair rocks in the Illinois Basin. In the latter area, probably time-equivalent rocks are also present in the lower part of the Moccasin Springs Formation; this is due to an apparent time- transgressive relationship along the St. Clair-Moccasin Springs boundary (Droste and Shaver, 1986).
Industrial Minerals: Crushed stone products from the Louisville Limestone, Member (Silurian) include the following: aglime, base materials, class A stone, chemical uses, crushed and sized limestone, crushed stone, dolomite, dolomite limestone, fill materials, high-calcium limestone, hot and cold mix asphalt, pugmill material, riprap, and manufactured sand from quarries in Adams, Allen, Bartholomew, Blackford, Clark, Delaware, Grant, Hamilton, Huntington, Madison, Scott, Shelby, Wabash, and Wells Counties (Shaffer, 2016).
Regional Indiana usage:
Illinois Basin (COSUNA 11)
New Corydon Limestone
Geologic Map Unit Designation:
Note: Hansen (1991, p. 52) in Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey noted that letter symbols for map units are considered to be unique to each geologic map and that adjacent maps do not necessarily need to use the same symbols for the same map unit. Therefore, map unit abbreviations in the Indiana Geologic Names Information System should be regarded simply as recommendations.
COSUNA areas and regional terminology
Names for geologic units vary across Indiana. The Midwestern Basin and Arches Region COSUNA chart (Shaver, 1984) was developed to strategically document such variations in terminology. The geologic map (below left) is derived from this chart and provides an index to the five defined COSUNA regions in Indiana. The regions are generally based on regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana. (Click the maps below to view more detailed maps of COSUNA regions and major structural features in Indiana.)
COSUNA areas and numbers that approximate regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana.
Major tectonic features that affect bedrock geology in Indiana.
Ault, C. H., and Carr, D. D., 1983, Directory of crushed stone, ground limestone, cement, and lime producers in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Directory [unnumbered], 36 p.
Berry, W. B. N., and Boucot, A. J., 1970, Correlation of the North American Silurian rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 102, 289 p.
Cumings, E. R., 1922, Nomenclature and description of the geological formations of Indiana, in Logan, W. N., Cumings, E. R., Malott, C. A., Visher, S. S., Tucker, W. M., Reeves, J. R., and Legge, H. W., Handbook of Indiana geology: Indiana Department of Conservation Publication No. 21, pt. 4, p. 403–570.
Droste, J. B., and Shaver, R. H., 1977, Synchronization of deposition–Silurian reef-bearing rocks on Wabash Platform with cyclic evaporites of Michigan Basin, in Fisher, J. H., ed., Reefs and evaporites–concepts and depositional models: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology 5, p. 93–109.
Droste, J. B., and Shaver, R. H., 1985, Comparative stratigraphic framework for Silurian reefs–Michigan Basin to the surrounding platforms, in Cercone, K. R., ed., Symposium on the Silurian and Ordovician of the Michigan Basin: Michigan Basin Geological Society Special Paper 4, p. 73–93.
Droste, J. B., and Shaver, R. H., 1986, Louisville Limestone, in Shaver, R. H., Ault, C. H., Burger, A. M., Carr, D. D., Droste, J. B., Eggert, D. L., Gray, H. H., Harper, Denver, Hasenmueller, N. R., Hasenmueller, W. A., Horowitz, A. S., Hutchison, H. C., Keith, B. D., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of Paleozoic rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana–a revision: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 59, p. 83–84.
Foerste, A. F., 1897, A report on the geology of the Middle and Upper Silurian rocks of Clark, Jefferson, Ripley, Jennings, and southern Decatur Counties, Indiana: Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources Annual Report 21, p. 213–288.
Griest, S. D., and Shaver, R. H., 1982, Geometric and paleoecologic analysis of Silurian reefs near Celina, Ohio: Indiana Academy of Science Proceedings, v. 91, p. 373–390.
Hansen, W. R., 1991, Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey (7th ed.): Washington, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, 289 p.
Indiana University Paleontology Seminar, 1976, Constitution, growth, and significance of the Silurian reef complex at Rockford, Ohio: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 60, p. 428–451.
Rexroad, C. B., Noland, A. V., and Pollock, C. A., 1978, Conodonts from the Louisville Limestone and the Wabash Formation (Silurian) in Clark County, Indiana, and Jefferson County, Kentucky: Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 16, 15 p.
Shaver, R. H., 1970, Louisville Limestone, in Shaver, R. H., Burger, A. M., Gates, G. R., Gray, H. H., Hutchison, H. C., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., Smith, N. M., Wayne, W. J., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 43, p. 97–99.
Shaver, R. H., and Sunderman, J. A., 1983, Silurian reef and interreef strata as responses to a cyclical succession of environments, southern Great Lakes area (Field Trip 12), in Shaver, R. H., and Sunderman, J. A., eds., Field trips in midwestern geology: Bloomington, Indiana, Geological Society of America, Indiana Geological Survey, and Indiana University Department of Geology, v. 1, p. 141–196.
Shaver, R. H., coordinator, 1984, Midwestern basin and arches region–correlation of stratigraphic units in North America (COSUNA): American Association of Petroleum Geologists Correlation Chart Series.
Shaver, R. H., Doheny, E. J., Droste, J. B., Lazor, J. D., Orr, R. W., Pollock, C. A., and Rexroad, C. B., 1971, Silurian and Middle Devonian stratigraphy of the Michigan Basin–a view from the southwest flank, in Forsyth, J. L., Geology of the Lake Erie islands and adjacent shores: Michigan Basin Geological Society Guidebook, p. 37–59.
Shaver, R. H., with contributions by Gray, H. H., Pinsak, A. P., Sunderman, J. A., Thornbury, W. D., and Wayne, W. J., 1961, Stratigraphy of the Silurian rocks of northern Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Field Conference Guidebook 10, 62 p.
For additional information, contact:
Nancy Hasenmueller (email@example.com)Date last revised: August 10, 2021