Type designation:

Type locality: The Haney Limestone was named by McFarlan and others (1955, p. 18) for exposures on Haney Creek, Hardin County, Illinois (Gray, 1986).

History of usage:

In Indiana the Haney Limestone was for many years known as the Golconda Limestone (Gray, 1986). As first described by Malott (1919, p. 18-19), the Golconda of Indiana usage included at its base a unit about 20 ft (6 m) thick of interbedded fossiliferous shale and thin beds of limestone (Gray, 1986). Later, Malott and Thompson (1920, p. 522) separated this unit and named it the Indian Springs Shale (Gray, 1986). Still later, the shale was reinstated into the Golconda (Malott, Esarey, and Bieberman, 1948; Gray, 1986).

Partly to make the lithologic term limestone more appropriate, Gray, Jenkins, and Weidman (1960, p. 39-40) restricted the name "Golconda" to the major limestone unit (Gray, 1986). As so defined, the term applied only to the upper part of the Golconda Group of the standard Chesterian section (Swann, 1963, p. 68; Gray, 1986). The inadvisability of this was noted by Gray (1970, p. 66), and the name "Haney" was later adopted (Gray, 1974). Gray (1986, p. 62) designated the underlying shale unit the Indian Springs Shale Member of the Big Clifty Formation.


In Indiana the Haney Limestone is dominantly biomicritic and includes skeletal limestone and micritic dolostone (Gray, 1986). Shale is a minor constituent (Gray, 1986). The formation ranges in thickness from 20 ft (6 m) to as much as 75 ft (22.9 m) (Droste and Keller, 1995) and contains abundant blastoids of the genus Pentremites, crinoid plates, and bryozoans, including Archimedes (Malott, Esarey, and Bieberman, 1948, p. 24). A lithofacies and biofacies analysis of the Haney Limestone in the Illinois Basin was made by Vincent (1975) (Gray, 1986). Treworgy (1988) discussed the lithofacies and depositional environments of the Haney Limestone and their relation to structural features of the Illinois Basin.

Distribution: The Haney can be recognized in surface exposures from northern Greene County to the Ohio River and is known in the subsurface from Owen County southwestward (Gray, 1986).


The Haney Limestone conformably overlies the Big Clifty Formation and is overlain conformably by the Hardinsburg Formation or disconformably by the Mansfield Formation (Pennsylvanian) (Gray, 1986). A local, apparently disconformable relationship at the base of the Hardinsburg Formation in the subsurface was illustrated in Illinois by Potter (1963, p. 58, fig. 42A) and in Knox and Gibson Counties, Indiana, by Kline (1952), but no such feature has been seen along the outcrop (Gray, 1986).


The Haney Limestone is recognized throughout the Illinois Basin. It lies within the range zone of the crinoid Pterotocrinus rugosus Lyon and Casseday, which in the basin is restricted to the Golconda Group (Welch, 1978; Gray, 1986). It correlates with rocks that are within North American foraminiferal Zone 16s of Mamet and Skipp (1971) and that are near the top of the Visean Series (Zone 3cs) of European usage (Gray, 1986). On the basis of its contained conodonts, the Haney has been assigned to the Gnathodus bilineatus-Cavusgnathus altus Assemblage Zone of North American usage (Collinson, Rexroad, and Thompson, 1971; Gray, 1986).

Regional Indiana usage:

Illinois Basin (COSUNA 11)
Supergroup: none
Group: Stephensport Group
Formation: Haney Limestone
Illinois Basin Margin (COSUNA 12)
Supergroup: none
Group: Stephensport Group
Formation: Haney Limestone

Misc/Abandoned Names:

Big lime, Golconda Formation, Golconda Limestone

Geologic Map Unit Designation:


Note: Hansen (1991, p. 52) in Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey noted that letter symbols for map units are considered to be unique to each geologic map and that adjacent maps do not necessarily need to use the same symbols for the same map unit. Therefore, map unit abbreviations in the Indiana Geologic Names Information System should be regarded simply as recommendations.

COSUNA areas and regional terminology

Names for geologic units vary across Indiana. The Midwestern Basin and Arches Region COSUNA chart (Shaver, 1984) was developed to strategically document such variations in terminology. The geologic map (below left) is derived from this chart and provides an index to the five defined COSUNA regions in Indiana. The regions are generally based on regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana. (Click the maps below to view more detailed maps of COSUNA regions and major structural features in Indiana.)

COSUNA areas and numbers that approximate regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural featuers in Indiana.

Major tectonic features that affect bedrock geology in Indiana.


Collinson, Charles, Rexroad, C. B., and Thompson, T. L., 1971, Conodont zonation of the North American Mississippian: Geological Society of America Memoirs 127, p. 353-394.

Droste, J. B., and Keller, S. J., 1995, Subsurface stratigraphy and distribution of oil fields of the Stephensport Group (Mississippian) in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 64, 21 p.

Gray, H. H., 1970, Golconda Limestone, in Shaver, R. H., Burger, A. M., Gates, G. R., Gray, H. H., Hutchison, H. C., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., Smith, N. M., Wayne, W. J., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 43, p. 65-66.

Gray, H. H., 1974, Haney Limestone (Stephensport Group, Chesterian, Mississippian) in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Occasional Paper 2, 3 p.

Gray, H. H., 1986, Haney Limestone, in Shaver, R. H., Ault, C. H., Burger, A. M., Carr, D. D., Droste, J. B., Eggert, D. L., Gray, H. H., Harper, Denver, Hasenmueller, N. R., Hasenmueller, W. A., Horowitz, A. S., Hutchison, H. C., Keith, B. D., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of Paleozoic rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana–a revision: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 59, p. 55-56.

Gray, H. H., Jenkins, R. D., and Weidman, R. M., 1960, Geology of the Huron area, south-central Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 20, 78 p.

Hansen, W. R., 1991, Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey (7th ed.): Washington, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, 289 p.

Kline, B. D., 1952, The Hardinsburg Formation in Knox County, Indiana: Bloomington, Indiana University, master's thesis, 22 p.

Malott, C. A., 1919, The "American Bottoms" region of eastern Greene County, Indiana–a type unit in southern Indiana physiography: Indiana University Studies, v. 6, no. 40, 61 p.

Malott, C. A., and Thompson, J. D., Jr., 1920, The stratigraphy of the Chester Series of southern Indiana [abs.]: Science, new ser., v. 51, p. 521-522.

Malott, C. A., Esarey, R. E., and Bieberman, D. F., 1948, Upper and Middle Mississippian formations of southern Indiana: Indiana Division of Geology Field Conference Guidebook 2, 27 p.

Mamet, B. L., and Skipp, B. A., 1971, Lower Carboniferous calcareous Foraminifera–preliminary zonation and stratigraphic implications for the Mississippian of North America: Sixieme Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere Sheffield, 1967, Compte rendu, v. 3, p. 1,129-1,146.

McFarlan, A. C., Nosow, Edmund, and Swann, D. H., 1955, Some old Chester problems–correlations of lower and middle Chester formations of western Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey, ser. 9, Bulletin 16, 37 p.

Potter, P. E., 1963, Late Paleozoic sandstones of the Illinois Basin: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 217, 92 p.

Shaver, R. H., coordinator, 1984, Midwestern basin and arches region–correlation of stratigraphic units in North America (COSUNA): American Association of Petroleum Geologists Correlation Chart Series.

Swann, D. H., 1963, Classification of Genevievian and Chesterian (Late Mississippian) rocks of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 216, 91 p.

Treworgy, J. D., 1988, The Illinois Basin – a tidally and tectonically influenced ramp during mid-Chesterian time: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 544, 20 p.

Vincent, J. W., 1975, Lithofacies and biofacies of the Haney Limestone (Mississippian), Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey Thesis Ser. 4, 64 p.

Welch, J. R., 1978, Pterotocrinus rugosus Lyon & Casseday from the middle Chesterian of the Illinois Basin: Journal of Paleontology, v. 52. p. 904-915.

For additional information contact:

Nancy Hasenmueller (
Date last revised: November 30, 2016