Type area: The name “Bond Formation” was first used by Kosanke and others (1960, p. 38) for rocks exposed in Bond County, southwestern Illinois (Burger, 1970, 1986).
History of usage:
Extended: Use of this name was extended to Indiana for rocks between the base of the Carthage Limestone Member and the top of the Livingston Limestone Member in the McLeansboro Group (Wier and Gray, 1961; Burger, 1970, 1986).
In Indiana, the Bond Formation consists of, in ascending order, the Carthage Limestone, St. Wendel Sandstone, Fairbanks Coal, Riverview Limestone, and Livingston Limestone Members and unnamed beds of shale, sandstone, and coal (Burger, 1970, 1986). The formation is made up of about 95 percent sandstone, shale, and siltstone and minor amounts of limestone, clay, and coal (Burger, 1986). The Bond Formation is about 150 ft (46 m) thick in Sullivan County and 250 ft (76 m) thick in northwestern Posey County (Burger, 1970, 1986).
The entire formation is present only in two widely separated areas in the state, western Sullivan County and the area of northwestern Posey County and southwestern Gibson County (Burger, 1970, 1986). Because of the distance between these two areas, exact correlation and corresponding thicknesses are uncertain (Burger, 1970, 1986).
Regional Indiana usage:
Illinois Basin (COSUNA 11)
Geologic Map Unit Designation:
Note: Hansen (1991, p. 52) in Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey noted that letter symbols for map units are considered to be unique to each geologic map and that adjacent maps do not necessarily need to use the same symbols for the same map unit. Therefore, map unit abbreviations in the Indiana Geologic Names Information System should be regarded simply as recommendations.
COSUNA areas and regional terminology
Names for geologic units vary across Indiana. The Midwestern Basin and Arches Region COSUNA chart (Shaver, 1984) was developed to strategically document such variations in terminology. The geologic map (below left) is derived from this chart and provides an index to the five defined COSUNA regions in Indiana. The regions are generally based on regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana. (Click the maps below to view more detailed maps of COSUNA regions and major structural features in Indiana.)
COSUNA areas and numbers that approximate regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana.
Major tectonic features that affect bedrock geology in Indiana.
Burger, A. M., 1970, Bond Formation, in Shaver, R. H., Burger, A. M., Gates, G. R., Gray, H. H., Hutchison, H. C., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., Smith, N. M., Wayne, W. J., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 43, p. 20.
Burger, A. M., 1986, Bond Formation, in Shaver, R. H., Ault, C. H., Burger, A. M., Carr, D. D., Droste, J. B., Eggert, D. L., Gray, H. H., Harper, Denver, Hasenmueller, N. R., Hasenmueller, W. A., Horowitz, A. S., Hutchison, H. C., Keith, B. D., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of Paleozoic rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana–a revision: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 59, p. 17.
Hansen, W. R., 1991, Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey (7th ed.): Washington, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, 289 p.
Kosanke, R. M., Simon, J. A., Wanless, H. R., and Willman, H. B., 1960, Classification of the Pennsylvanian strata of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 214, 84 p.
North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983, North American Stratigraphic Code: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 67, p. 841–875.
Shaver, R. H., coordinator, 1984, Midwestern basin and arches region–correlation of stratigraphic units in North America (COSUNA): American Association of Petroleum Geologists Correlation Chart Series.
The Tri-State Committee on Correlation of the Pennsylvanian System in the Illinois Basin, 2001, Toward a more uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for rock units (formations and groups) of the Pennsylvanian System in the Illinois Basin: Indiana Geological Survey, Illinois Basin Consortium Illinois Basin Studies 5, 26 p.
Wier, C. E., and Gray, H. H., 1961, Geologic map of the Indianapolis 1° x 2° quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits: Indiana Geological Survey Regional Geologic Map, Indianapolis Sheet, scale 1:250,000.
For additional information, contact:
Nancy Hasenmueller (email@example.com)Date last revised: July 28, 2017