Type locality: The Palestine Formation was named by Stuart Weller (1913, p. 128-129) for exposures of thick-bedded sandstone; thin-bedded, ripple-marked sandstone; and sandy shale, 75 ft (23 m) in total thickness, in Palestine Township, Randolph County, Illinois (Gray, 1970; Gray, 1986).
History of usage:
Use of name in Illinois: Weller, (1920, p. 209) later changed the name to Palestine Sandstone. This formation, a unit in the standard Chesterian section (Swann, 1963, p. 39-40), is now understood to include much shale and siltstone, although it is dominated by complex lenticular sandstone bodies (Atherton and others, 1975, p. 161; Gray, 1986).
The shales in the Palestine Formation are mainly medium to dark gray and are characteristically silty and sandy (Droste and Keller, 1995). Thin lenses of siltstone and very fine grained sandstone are interbedded in the shale (Droste and Keller, 1995). Droste and Keller (1995) noted that fragments of carbonaceous matter are found in the shales and sandstones of the Palestine Formation and are more common in the Palestine than in any other unit in the Buffalo Wallow Group.
Droste and Keller (1995) noted that the upper and lower contacts of the formation are conformable except where the Palestine is truncated by the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity.
The following petroleum fields have produced oil from the Palestine Formation (Mississippian) in Indiana: Black River Consolidated, Caborn Consolidated, College Consolidated, Mumford Hills, Powells Lake Consolidated, Rockport Consolidated, Springfield Consolidated, Welborn Consolidated, Welborn North Consolidated, and West Hovey (Cazee, 2004).
Regional Indiana usage:
Illinois Basin (COSUNA 11)
Geologic Map Unit Designation:
Note: Hansen (1991, p. 52) in Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey noted that letter symbols for map units are considered to be unique to each geologic map and that adjacent maps do not necessarily need to use the same symbols for the same map unit. Therefore, map unit abbreviations in the Indiana Geologic Names Information System should be regarded simply as recommendations.
COSUNA areas and regional terminology
Names for geologic units vary across Indiana. The Midwestern Basin and Arches Region COSUNA chart (Shaver, 1984) was developed to strategically document such variations in terminology. The geologic map (below left) is derived from this chart and provides an index to the five defined COSUNA regions in Indiana. The regions are generally based on regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana. (Click the maps below to view more detailed maps of COSUNA regions and major structural features in Indiana.)
COSUNA areas and numbers that approximate regional bedrock outcrop patterns and major structural features in Indiana.
Major tectonic features that affect bedrock geology in Indiana.
Atherton, Elwood, Collinson, Charles, and Lineback, J. A., 1975, Mississippian System, in Willman, H. B., Atherton, Elwood, Buschbach, T. C., Collinson, Charles, Frye, J. C., Hopkins, M. E., Lineback, J. A., and Simon, J. A., Handbook of Illinois stratigraphy: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 95, p. 123-163.
Gray, H. H., 1970, Palestine Sandstone, in Shaver, R. H., Burger, A. M., Gates, G. R., Gray, H. H., Hutchison, H. C., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., Smith, N. M., Wayne, W. J., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 43, p. 124-125.
Gray, H. H., 1986, Palestine Sandstone, in Shaver, R. H., Ault, C. H., Burger, A. M., Carr, D. D., Droste, J. B., Eggert, D. L., Gray, H. H., Harper, Denver, Hasenmueller, N. R., Hasenmueller, W. A., Horowitz, A. S., Hutchison, H. C., Keith, B. D., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., and Wier, C. E., Compendium of Paleozoic rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana–a revision: Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 59, p. 107-108.
Hansen, W. R., 1991, Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey (7th ed.): Washington, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, 289 p.
Malott, C. A., 1925, The upper Chester of Indiana: Indiana Academy of Science Proceedings, v. 34, p. 103-132.
Malott, C. A., 1931, Geologic structure in the Indian and Trinity Springs locality, Martin County, Indiana: Indiana Academy of Science Proceedings, v. 40, p. 217-231.
Malott, C. A., and Esarey, R. E., 1940, Outcrop of the Chester Series of southern Indiana: Indiana-Kentucky Geological Society, May 18, 1940, 9 p. [mimeo.].
Shaver, R. H., coordinator, 1984, Midwestern basin and arches region–correlation of stratigraphic units in North America (COSUNA): American Association of Petroleum Geologists Correlation Chart Series.
Swann, D. H., 1963, Classification of Genevievian and Chesterian (Late Mississippian) rocks of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 216, 91 p.
Weller, Stuart, 1913, Stratigraphy of the Chester Group in southwestern Illinois: Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions, v. 6, p. 118-129.
Weller, Stuart, 1920, The geology of Hardin County and the adjoining part of Pope County: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 41, 416 p.
For additional information, contact:
Nancy Hasenmueller (email@example.com)Date last revised: March 4, 2021